Sometimes birth is not normal. Sometimes there really are complications and problems which need to be dealt with in a hospital setting. Sometimes a medical approach to birth is exactly what’s needed. Sometimes interventions during birth ARE lifesaving. Yesterday was a perfect example of that. I was helping to take care of a woman who was incredibly high risk and had the odds stacked against her in terms of her chance of having a normal, uncomplicated delivery. She was severely anemic, and had been throughout her pregnancy; and not just the usual anemia of pregnancy—no, this was a woman who had a hemoglobin of 6.5 at one point during her 3rd trimester, and a hematocrit of 19%. (To put that in perspective, bear in mind that normal is a Hemoglobin of 12-13 or greater, and a hematocrit of 32-33% or greater.) She had been seen by Hematology several times during her pregnancy and had had numerous anemia work-ups. It all pointed to iron-deficiency anemia, and she was taking iron replacement therapy, but there’s only so much that this can do. At one point during her pregnancy she had been offered a blood transfusion, which she had refused. When she was admitted, her hemoglobin was 7.8 and her hematocrit was 21%—numbers which didn’t demand an immediate transfusion, but which were very concerning given the fact that she was going to give birth, and giving birth means losing blood, and if you’re severely anemic you don’t really have any blood to lose. Our professor used to say that if a woman is severely anemic, she “can’t tolerate” a hemorrhage…which is what…a polite way of saying that she’ll die?
In addition to the severe anemia, she was also preeclamptic. Her baby had oligohydramnios, probably caused by the preeclampsia (unchecked hypertension and poor placental perfusion can lead to intrauterine growth restriction and oligohydramnios, both of which are not good signs). She had protein in her urine, was hyper-reflexive, and was starting to have toxic symptoms (blurry vision, headaches, visual changes, epigastric pain, edema). She was admitted for an induction of labor immediately on account of the oligohydramnios and preeclampsia. To my way of thinking, this was the right call. With preeclampsia, you don’t want a patient sitting around at home with skyrocketing blood pressure—it can lead to siezures if untreated, and the only cure is birth. Similarly, oligohydramnios indicates chronic, long-term insult to the baby, which sadly means that the womb is no longer the best environment for fetal well-being.
This was her second baby. Her cervix was 3 centimers dilated at the start of the induction, so rather than using a cervical ripening agent like cytotec or cervadil, pitocin was started instead. Because she was preeclamptic, she was also started on Magnesium Sulfate, which prevents preeclamptic seizures by causing systemic smooth muscle relaxation. Mag is an awful drug. It makes you weak and hot and sweaty, and it often complicates inductions because it’s hard to induce contractions when a woman is receiving a medication which is causing all of her muscles to relax. Pitocin and magnesium are always at odds with each other. I think a lot of preeclamptic inductions fail because of the magnesium.
Anyway, maybe it was because of the magnesium, maybe it was because her first labor was also a very long, drawn-out labor, but in any case, her progress was very slow. I admitted her on Friday, and she was still in labor when I came back 12 hours later, on Saturday. She hadn’t made much progress; she was only 4 centimeters dilated when the doctor checked her that morning, and was still 4 centimeters when the doctor checked again 3 hours later. Her bag of water was broken by the doctor, an intrauterine pressure catheter was inserted to measure the actual strength of the contractions, and the pitocin was duly increased. And increased, and increased. It got as high as 28 miliunits/min., which was as high as I’ve seen it in a long time. Her contractions were adequte (because of the IUPC, we were counting montivideo units, and yes, they were adequate), but they were always irregular. When I checked her again 3 hours after the IUPC had been placed, she was only 5 centimeters dilated, and it was a tight 5 (I was worried that I was being too generous, and that the doctor would come behind me and check her again and decide that she was still only 4 centimeters, that she hadn’t made any progress, and that she would therefore need a cesarean for failure to progress).
I was really worried about this woman and this baby. I was worried about a severe hemorrhage. She had so many risk factors leading up to it; she was on magnesium, which relaxes the uterus and makes postpartum uterine atony more likely. She had been on pitocin for almost 24 hours, which tires out the uterus and makes postpartum uterine atony more likely. And because she was severely anemic, she couldn’t hemorrhage. She had no blood to lose. I was worried that after another three hours of little or no progress, she would give birth by cesarean, which means that her blood loss would be at least 800 cc. She didn’t have 800 cc to lose.
At least the tracing was always reassuring. I’m sure that if, at any point the tracing had begun to look anything other than beautiful, there would have been an immediate cesarean. Her urine output was always good, her magnesium levels were always on target (never too high or too low), and all of the medications we were giving her seemed to be doing their jobs. The woman seemed to be taking everything in stride, as well. I was amazed by her strength. She never panicked, even when she first found out that she had preeclampsia and would need to be induced. She had an epidural and was comfortable. She slept for several hours at a time, as did the rest of her family (her partner and grandmother, both in their chairs with their mouths open, snoring). She asked a few questions here and there, but for the most part, she seemed to trust that things would be okay. She must have known something that I didn’t. I was worrying plenty for the both of us.
Three hours after my last exam, I was unsure of what to do. I didn’t want to check her again and have to be the one to discover that she was still only 5 centimetrs dilated, and then have to notify the doctor and watch the entire thing get written off as “failure to progress”. On the other hand, we’re supposed to round on the women we’re taking care of every 2 hours, and I was trying very hard to be on top of things; it was already an hour past when I was supposed to check her and write a note. I called my preceptor on the phone and discussed the situation with her. We decided to write a note on her well-being, lab values and fetal status, but defer the exam for another hour, if possible. I hung up the phone and walked to the room, only to discover that the doctor was already there, and had just checked her. She was fully dilated.
I didn’t even have time to marvel over how she’d managed to go from 5 centimeters to fully in 3 hours…not that this is an impossible thing at all (many 2nd time moms do the entire labor in 3 hours or less), but she had been making such slow progress, and her body was battling the magnesium every step of the way. I was so incredibly, pleasantly surprised! I barely had enough time to get my gloves on before the baby’s head was crowning. He wasn’t a very large baby. She pushed him out in 6 minutes, and he began to scream and wave his arms around. Her partner cut the cord. The pediatricians were there on account of the prolonged magnesium exposure in the baby, but everything was fine.
The placenta came out 4 minutes after the baby, and we began to massage her uterus immediately. It wasn’t firm right away, but it firmed up with massage. We ran 40 units of pitocin in 1 liter of IV fluid (we couldn’t give her methergine because her blood pressure was too high, since methergine can cause a stroke if given to hypertensive women) and…please, no heavy bleeding…please, no hemorrhage…please, let it stop….and it did. She lost blood, but a normal amount. She had a small, first degree laceration which we quickly repaired so that it wouldn’t bleed very much.
And that was it. All of those risk factors, all of those hurdles to overcome, and in spite of it all, a normal birth. Even with the doctor in the room. Even with multiple IV lines, and packed units of red blood cells ready and waiting in case she hemorrhaged. Even with an induction that lasted 28+ hours, and heavy medications competing against each other. Even with a midwife that was worried about so many things that could have potentially gone wrong, which didn’t. Even in high risk situations, with all sorts of complications, even with a prenatal course and labor which is anything but normal….normal birth can and does still occur.